Brief History of Argentina

Argentina was thinly populated before Europeans conquered it. The inhabitants grew crops such as squash and potatoes. People lived in walled towns. The ancient Argentinians used pottery and metals. Most indigenous people lived by gathering plants and hunting wild animals. The hunting and gathering lifestyle continued in Argentina till the 19th century.

Europeans arrival

The Europeans arrived in Argentina in the 16th century. In around 1516, Juan de Solis came in River Plate, but the natives killed him. Sebastian Cabot later reached the river plate. First people to enter Argentina faced hostile natives who forced them out. For example, the Spaniards encountered hostile natives who forced them out. The British captured Buenos Aires in 1806, but they were forced to withdraw by the natives.

Argentina in the 19th Century

Originally the United Provinces consisted of Bolivia, Argentina, and Uruguay. The provinces further divided into the individual states. The states were divided between the unitaralists and the Federalists. Unitaralists were advocating for the central government while the Federalists were advocating for a federation of provinces. In 1820 the states broke up forming Bolivia which gained independence in 1825 and Uruguay which was created as a buffer state between Brazil and Argentina. The buffer state was established in 1828 after war broke out between the two states.

General Juan de Rosa was a dictator of Argentina in 1835. He was a federalist who introduced a strong central government. He alienated many people in the state and later in 1852 he faced rebellion which forced him out of power. The native Argentinians lived in their traditional way.

Infrastructure in Argentina

The first railroad through Argentina was constructed in 1857. Many other tracks followed after that. By the beginning of 1900, there were over 10,000 miles of rail road in the country. By 1912, there were over 20,000 miles of railroad. The railroads made exportation of produce easier as they were able to reach the coast with ease. Some of the products which were exports from Argentina include grain, wool, and meat. The exports made the country among the riches in South America. The population of Argentina boomed in the 19th century due to immigrants from Italy and Spain.

Argentina in the 20th Century

By 1920s, Argentina was the 7th richest country in the world. The country was affected by the Wall Street crash just like any other country in the world. General Jose F. Uriburu became the president of Argentina after the army staged a coup in 1930. Uriburu called for an election in 1931, and the Radical Party was banned from participation although it was a major party. Roberto Ortiz became the president, and Ramon Castillo was the vice president. Due to ill health, Ortiz handed over power to Castillo in 1940. In 1943 the army staged another coup. In January of 1944, Argentina severed diplomatic relations with Japan and Germany. On March 27, 1945, Argentina declared war on Germany.

Argentina in the 21st Century

From 2001 to 2002, Argentina faced severe recession. The economy later recovered and it is still growing steadily. In October 2007, Christina Kirchner became the first elected woman president in Argentina. In 2015, Mauricio Marci was elected president. To date Argentina has about 43 million people.

 

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